Author Archives: Dr Christa van Staden

iWatermark+, an easy application to protect your photos

I was quite frustrated when I realised somebody else have taken my photo and shared it on their Instagram profiles. Maybe because they had more followers and got more likes for my photo. Fact is, I have taken the photo and I felt I needed to protect my creative property. I have waited so long for the clouds to clear, so that I could take a beautiful photo of one of the beautiful buildings in my town.

So, I have searched AppStore and found a few that are useful. And, to be quite honest, if an app says that it is for free, and want to charge me as soon as I have downloaded it, I am getting extremely fustrated. In the process, a few of the options were deleted as soon as they have been downloaded. At the end, I have sticked to iWatermark+.

The logo for the application looks like this:

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It costed a few Rands, less than R100 if I remember correctly, but it was totally worthwhile to choose this specific application. You can use it in different ways, I will show you how I am using it.

When you open the application, you are taken to this screen.

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Your screen will not have the CvS ’19, that is my watermark, or rather one of the three I have chosen.

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You can select any of the others, or all of them if you want to, but be careful, all of them will show on your picture. So choose wisely. As soon as you have chosen one, three blue lines appears next to it. Click there to personalise it.

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You can change the font, the size, and f you want to engrave or emboss the watermark. I prefer engrave, the effect is to my liking, but you maybe want to choose emboss or even plain.

As soon as you have done that, you can start watermarking your photos to protect them. so here are the instructions. Click on the picture at the bottom of this screen.

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You will see that it shows that I have 3 watermarks ready to be used. You can change it from here if you want to.On the following screen you decide if you want to watermark one or many photos.

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You can even import a file. I have not yet used more than one, I always select one photo at a time.

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You can then select the photo from your photos on your phone.

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You can click on the watermark and move it to your liking, I normally place it where somebody who wants to use my photo will have some difficulty in using it without damaging the photo’s quality. When you are happy, click at the bottom of the screen the share button (second from right). You will be taken to this screen.

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Decide how you want to share it. You can share it immediately (green icons). Or you can save and print it (black icons). I choose save image to save the watermarked one on my phone. It does not replace the original photo. I know, that was my concern as well. Here is the one I have created for this tutorial.

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So, if you would love to share your photos, but you want to protect them as well, I recommend at this stage this application. A once off payment worth wile spent.

Please feel free to leave comments. Or to share how you have used this application. If you use others, you may share that as well. We need to learn from one another. I just love this app since I can customize it on the photo before I save it to be posted. some of the other apps need a lot of work if you change your mind …

 

 

 

 

From the heart of a teacher

Teachers are bullied in schools – by the same children they are supposed to guide towards adulthood.

Their classes are disrupted, they are treated with disrespect and they are not even allowed to send a naughty child out of the classroom so that the rest of the class can be taught.

Today, I found this open letter from a teacher on my Facebook group for teachers and he wished that there is a way to send it into the open so that other people can realise that teachers are human, have feelings and are hurt. Despite this, teachers go daily back and do their jobs.

I felt his pain, and many of the teachers of this special group of teachers felt it as well. Fact is, teachers are people too! His letter follows, unedited:

TEACHERS ARE PEOPLE TOO!

Lately there has been a spate of posts on social media about teacher brutality that went viral. Shock is expressed from all spheres of society and our dear education department is promising that legal action WILL be taken.
There are, however some information outside those dreaded posts that is not revealed, because nobody wants to own up. Before that teacher lost control and hit the child, he/she has been ridiculed, disrespected, cursed at, stolen from, etc. for a looong time.
Remember that teachers in senior phases get up to 7 classes of more than 35 learners per day. Out of these, +/- 15 per class (add up to 105 learners a day) are disrespectful. They refuse to work or keep quiet and are blatantly rude when addressed. Attempted parent contact mostly goes unanswered or ends up in a disciplinary hearing with a warning, and the child is back, because they have rights. They cannot be put out of class, because they have rights. They cannot be touched, even if they smack or punch a teacher, because they have rights. They cannot be addressed harshly, even if they curse at teachers, because they have rights.


In all this, it seems like you give up your humanity when you become a teacher. Well, let me point out that under the straight face that we go back to schools with everyday, to face the same abuse from the same children, are normal human beings; we have children and parents like everybody else, we feel, like everybody else, we hurt, like everybody else… Because we are people too. I am not pleading to a child to start respecting me, because it is not in their capacity. I am pleading with our government to restore the dignity of teachers by not placing the rights if these unruly monsters created by this evil system above teachers rights, because we are people too. We also have rights.
All we want to do is our job, which is educating these kids back to childhood and into adulthood, which can only be done with the help of both the parents and our government. ALUTA CONTINUA!

(If someone knows how to get this out on the media platforms where everybody can see, especially government, it will be appreciated.)

To all the teachers who did not quit as I did, but are still standing in the classrooms despite bad behaviour of children, I salute you. And I pray for you. We need you!

How to import a bibliography from an existing MS Word document into Mendeley

Neither EndNote nor RefWorks can “read” citations from an existing bibliography in a Word document not formatted using a citation management application. An earlier postdescribed methods to transfer references to an EndNote library from a bibliography formatted in Word. However, there is another way to do this using a free online service called WizFolio which can easily convert a pre-existing bibliography into an RIS-formatted file. You then  import the RIS file into EndNote or RefWorks.

Here are the steps:

1. Go to the  WizFolio home page:

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2. Select Sign Up Now and create a free Wizfolio account.  Once you have the account, you can log in back at the home page:

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3. Open your Word document and select your entire bibliography:

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4. In your WizFolio account hold your mouse over the Add icon toward the top center of the Wizfolio window.  Select Import from Clipboard:

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5. Paste your text into the box  that opens. You should  see Wizfolio inserting blank lines between the references in your bibliography:

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6.  After WizFolio has inserted the spaces, click the Import Now button in the lower right corner of the page. WizFolio will attempt to locate and import records from PubMed and other sources:

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7.  Select all the citations you’ve just imported. Click the Export button at the top of the page then select Export to RIS:

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8.  Save the file.  It will be called MyReferences.ris.

Mendeley

1.  Open Mendeley.

2.  Locate the MyReferences.ris file and open it.  It should import directly into Mendeley:

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3.  If it does not directly import into Endnote, import using the Import function using   Reference Manager (RIS) as your Import Option.

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Be certain to check that all the information has been correctly imported.

Mendeley 02: How to use Google scholar to import references

You can use Google Scholar to import resources into your Mendeley library. In order to do that, follow these steps:

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  • Click on search
  • Click on the Mendeley image top of browser

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  • A pop-up will open displaying all items found (first page of search)
  • Click in the boxes next to all literature you want to import into Mendeley

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  • Please note that PDF files will be imported as well (see red indicator next to third resource I have clicked to be imported)
  • Click on Save XXX items (top corner of pop-up)
  • Wait until all of them are imported

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  • Colour changes to green to indicate that all selected resources were imported
  • Will state that it saved xxx items (see top corner of pop-up)
  • Scroll down in browser and select another page of the web search results

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  • Repeat previous steps to import more resources
  • Check if the resources was imported into Mendeley

 

I found using Google Scholar to import resources an excellent affordance of Mendeley!

Please feel free to leave a comment.

Mendeley 01: Get started

1.  Create a free account

The following steps should be taken to create a free Mendeley account. (Please note: Mendeley is supported by various browsers, but Google Chrome creates the least problems).

Follow these steps:

  • Open Google Chrome
  • Type http://mendeley.com in the address bar
  • Click on Create a free account
  • Complete the form (page will look similar to image below)
  • I suggest using your gmail email address and not a work email address

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  • Click on Next (page will look similar to image below)

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  • Choose Field of study (drop down list)
  • Provide information with regard to academic status (drop down list)
  • Click on Create an account
  • You will see a page similar to one in image below

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  • Use the email address and password you have used to create the account and sign in.
  • Your account is ready to be used.
  • In the following blog post I will explain the dashboard.

For now, you need to follow two more steps to be able to use Mendeley.

 

2.  Download and install desktop application of Mendeley

Please note:

Mendeley desktop allows you to insert citations into documents. At this stage, the following word processors are supported:

  • Windows 2007 or later, including Office 365 for Windows
  • Word 11 and Word 2016 for Mac (no previous versions)
  • Lateste version of LibreOffice

(The desktop application allows you to work offline, just remember to sync when you can access the Internet).

  • Scroll all the way down the web page you were taken to when you signed into Mendeley
  • On the right hand side, find Download and Upgrade
  • Click on Download Mendeley free
  • It should provide you with the correct link (green) to download Mendeley for your operation system (mine is Mac OS – see image below)

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  • Click on the green link to download the desktop application
  • Follow the instructions to install the desktop application
  • Use the same email address and password for the desktop application

 

3.  Install the Web Importer

The web importer imports resources direct from the Internet into your Mendeley account.

  • On the right hand side of the Mendeley web page, find the blue block similar to the one portrayed in the image below.

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  • Click on the Add it to your browser link
  • It will take you to a page explaining how to install the web importer for different browsers
  • If you have decided to use Google Chrome, click directly beneath it on Install the Mendeley Web importer browser extension

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  • In the pop-up window, click on Add to Chrome in the green block (Image – wording is Added to Chrome since I have done that already)

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  • The Mendeley Web Importer will be installed to the right of the address bar of the Chrome browser (see image)

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The last step before you can get started is to enable Microsoft Word to cite your references

4.  Install MS Word Plugin

  • Open the desktop application of Mendeley
  • Click on Tools
  • Click on Install MS Word Plugin (Note – mine is installed, therefore it changed to Uninstall)

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  • Follow the onscreen instructions
  • You are ready to start citing your references
  • Have fun!

 

I will explain the use of Mendeley in follow-up posts, numbering them from 01 so that you can follow it in sequence.

Please leave a comment.

Mendeley – a complete referencing tool

I have used Refworks while I have worked on my PhD and loved it, so, when I was asked to attend the Mendeley training session, I did not think it could be possible to persuade me to use Mendeley instead of Refworks. But, I have to admit, after the short introductory course presented by Unisa library staff, I am going to use this reference manager and academic social network in future. Mendeley is webbased, but it also has a desktop application, available at http://mendeley.com.

Screen Shot 2016-03-11 at 1.08.17 PMMendeley is a free reference manager, academic social network and fully-searchable library that supports academics in doing their research in one place.

Mendeley can be used to:

  • generate citations and bibliography in style of choice
  • cite as you write
  • read and annotate PDF’s on the go
  • securely store references
  • access references on any device
  • sort references, documents and notes in one place
  • sort references by using either keywords (tags) or folders for easy access
  • publicly or privately share reading lists, references or full-text articles

The group functionality allows groups of academics to:

  • publicly or privately share reading lists, references or full texts
  • create groups to tackle research assignments, share feedback and write papers with collaborators

The connectivity affordance allows researchers to:

  • connect with colleagues, peers or classmates to follow their research outputs
  • showcase published research to millions around the world

I have created a few tutorials that can be shared with all interested in upping their referencing skills.

Topics covered:

 

If you need more tutorials, or you find some of the tutorials not sufficient, please feel free to leave a message. You may also request more tutorials if needed.

 

Complete Mendeley Course for Researchers and Students

One of the most frustrating things to take care of when you are writing academic papers, is referencing. Some universities prefer as specific referencing style. When you are sending your academic papers to journals, their referencing styles differ. If you forget a comma and use italics or no italics, you will have to recheck all your references before the manuscript will be be published.

I have used Refworks and MS Word’s reference manager until I have been introduced to Mendeley. Since then I do not have to worry about my referencing style. Even if I have to send a paper to a different journal using another referencing style, it takes a few clicks to change the referencing style.

I have developed a Complete Mendeley Course for Researchers and Students consisting of 90+ videos. Each video focus on a specific skill. Due to lifetime access, you can always go back to the course and revisit a skill.

The cost? $20 – with lifetime access to the course. Complete the course in a few hours, receive your certificate for professional development purposes and return whenever you need to revisit a skill.

Hope to see you there.

From the heart of a teacher

Teachers are bullied in schools – by the same children they are supposed to guide towards adulthood. Their classes are disrupted, they are treated with disrespect and they are not even allowed to send a naughty child out of the classroom so that the rest of the class can be taught. Today, I found this open letter from a teacher on my Facebook group for teachers and he wished that there is a way to send it into the open so that other people can realise that they are human, they have feelings and they are hurt. Despite this, they go back and do their jobs.

I felt his pain, and many of the teachers of this special group of teachers as well. Fact is, teachers are people too! His letter follows, unedited:

TEACHERS ARE PEOPLE TOO!

Lately there has been a spate of posts on social media about teacher brutality that went viral. Shock is expressed from all spheres of society and our dear education department is promising that legal action WILL be taken.
There are, however some information outside those dreaded posts that is not revealed, because nobody wants to own up. Before that teacher lost control and hit the child, he/she has been ridiculed, disrespected, cursed at, stolen from, etc. for a looong time.
Remember that teachers in senior phases get up to 7 classes of more than 35 learners per day. Out of these, +/- 15 per class (add up to 105 learners a day) are disrespectful. They refuse to work or keep quiet and are blatantly rude when addressed. Attempted parent contact mostly goes unanswered or ends up in a disciplinary hearing with a warning, and the child is back, because they have rights. They cannot be put out of class, because they have rights. They cannot be touched, even if they smack or punch a teacher, because they have rights. They cannot be addressed harshly, even if they curse at teachers, because they have rights.


In all this, it seems like you give up your humanity when you become a teacher. Well, let me point out that under the straight face that we go back to schools with everyday, to face the same abuse from the same children, are normal human beings; we have children and parents like everybody else, we feel, like everybody else, we hurt, like everybody else… Because we are people too. I am not pleading to a child to start respecting me, because it is not in their capacity. I am pleading with our government to restore the dignity of teachers by not placing the rights if these unruly monsters created by this evil system above teachers rights, because we are people too. We also have rights.
All we want to do is our job, which is educating these kids back to childhood and into adulthood, which can only be done with the help of both the parents and our government. ALUTA CONTINUA!


(If someone knows how to get this out on the media platforms where everybody can see, especially government, it will be appreciated.)

Complete Mendeley Course for Researchers and Students

I have developed a cost-effective Complete Mendeley Course for Researchers and Students to help students and researchers to use the Mendeley reference manager effectively. The following topics are covered:

  • How to install the technologies
  • How to build your library online
  • How to build your library offline
  • How to organise your library
  • How to filter the library online
  • How to filter the library offine
  • How to use the search tools
  • How to use Mendeley to cite references (MS Word)
  • How to create a bibliography
  • How to change the referencing style

The course consist of 30-90 second videos that can be watched while you are waiting somewhere. The focus is on one skill per video, so that you can find it easily when you need to rewatch a video.

At the end of the course you will receive a certificate that can be used for continuing professional development purposes.

 

UX-designers target emotions to create a competitive advantage

Miklos Philips , a UX Designer @ Toptal, argues that designers have to cater for customer delight to create a competitive advantage and to promote growth. According to Donald Norman, author of The Design of Everyday Things, design is an act of communication; therefore, it requires a deep understanding of the person with whom the designer is communicating. If taken into account that companies are rewarded substantially when they connect with their customers’ emotions in a positive way, designers need to identify the powerful motivators that can help companies to create a competitive advantage.

Looking at the products around us, most of the designs speak to our emotions. We like or dislike it, we feel disillusioned or motivated when we use it, and we even love or hate certain colours. I will not buy an orange tool for my kitchen, even if it is better than it’s competitors. All designs ultimately produce an emotion, a fact incorporated in an old adage in the user-experience (UX) professionals world: “interaction with any product produces an experience (emotion) whether it had user experience or not.” All end products elicited an emotion from their audience; therefore, UX-designers are concerned with how an user interacts with and responds to an interface, service or product.

The response to a product or service or interface is regarded as an emotion; therefore, UX-designers do not only strive to design usable, functional products; they also strive to generate a certain emotional effect — usually a positive one — on a user while he or she uses the product. If the design is good, the response will be maintained throughout the user journey. Therefore, emotional design focuses on an interaction with the designed product that affects the user. In this article, I am using Philip’s guidelines to evaluate some of the products and interfaces I am using on a daily basis.

Approaches to designs

First, we need to look at some approaches to designing products, interfaces, and apps.

Utilitarianism

Functional design, or utilitarian design subscribes to the “form follows function” style prevalent since the early 20th century. This approach is based on the idea that the shape of an object or building should be based mainly on its function and purpose, and not on its aesthetic value. Current approaches to designing incorporates the aesthetic value to speak to the emotions of potential buyers of the products. (see the example from Philip’s article).

Brutalism

Philps refers to brutalism as the twin brother of utilitarianism. The form follows the function, but the product is also put together with the least amount of effort, the cheapest materials available and with zero regard to appearance or the human experience as can seen in the picture of a block of flats in one of the poor areas of the Western Cape, South Africa.

The flats are functional, but not pretty at all.

Aesthetics and Perceived Usability

Two Japanese researchers studied in the 1990’s two different layouts of controls for ATMs to invesigate if aesthetics affects perceived usability (Philips). The versions were identical in function, but the interfaces were not identical regarding their aesthetic value. The researchers found that the ones with attractive interfaces were perceived to be easier to use.

Philips argues that Braun, a very successful design and manufacturing company founded nearly a 100 years ago in Germany, is famous for its minimalist, elegant designs which captivated people since they are functional, but also simple, refined, good-looking and consequently a joy to use (see images below (Philips).

Utilitarian designs that are simply functional and feature-rich do not please people any longer. According to Tinker Hatfield, a shoe designer at Nike Nike basic designs are always functional but great designs will also say something to the potential users.

The Emotional Design Pyramid

Maslow (1943) postulated that human motivation is based on people seeking fulfillment and change through personal growth.  Based on his hierarchy of human needs, emotional design can be put on a pyramid that illustrates its importance (Philps).

People perceive functional and attractive things to work better than other things.  As illustrated in the Japanese ATM experiment, a product’s aesthetic value can affect its perceived usability. According to Philips products that include a pleasing aesthetic and anticipatory design can lead to such a degree of customer satisfaction, that minor frustrations and imperfections with those products will be forgiven.

During the 1990’s and early 2000’s Blackberry took South Africa by storm. The phones were not good-looking, but the free BBM function made up for an ugly design due to the high cost of Internet access in South Africa. And then Blackberry took the BBM function away, leaving potential buyers with the opportunity to choose any other phone. Currently, iPhone’s, LG’s, Sony’s and Samsung’s are the phone of choice, based on their people-pleasing slick designs (image Philips).

Emotions and The Brain

According to Philips, negative experiences focus the brain on what’s wrong; they narrow the thought process and make people anxious and tense. We feel restricted and frustrated if a website or an App is badly designed and doesn’t perform to expectations. In fact, this feeling can grow into a form of anger known as computer rage. Computer rage races our pulse-rates, forces us to click away from irritating sites and to delete Apps in frustration. When design goes wrong, extreme emotions can be produced.

Good emotional design elicits pleasure and a sense of security and safety (Philips). Until 1998, all PC boxes were white, and then Apple released translucent, candy-colored iMacs that signaled more than a renaissance for Apple; it sparked a widespread industrial design revolution since it found the sweet spot (image from Philips).

Steve Jobs, the CEO of Apple Computer,  stated that design is much more that what a product looks and feels like, it needs to work well as well.  According to Bruce Claxton, Professor, Design Management at Savannah College of Art and Design, we seek out products that are not just simple to use but also a joy to use. In this regard, my Dell Inspiron 13, from the 7000 series serves as an excellent example.

Many manufacturers offers tablets (iPads) and computer, but Dell integrated a computer and a tablet to improve usability and user experience. Although I love my Apple products, they are not user-friendly in airplanes and when I work in bed. The screen of my Dell folds further back and can even be folded all the way back to change my computer in a tablet (see figure below).

From Passive to Interactive

Not long ago, the objects around us were mostly “dumb,” passive, one-way machines due to a lack of an interactive relationship.

My mixer could not talk back, but my new Thermomix machine can, a feature that allows me to form an emotional relationship with her. The interactive, chip operated Thermomix asks me if I want to see a recently used recipe or the interactive cooking book.

She also warns me when the lid is not inserted, and when a speed is insufficient due to the temperature of the liquid in the bowl.

My Apple watch reminds me to stand up and walk for one minute, a feature that can save my life since I forget to do it when I am working on my computer. Only when my legs cramps I realise that I have dismissed the haptic of my watch and sat for more than an hour in a certain position.

According to Philips such interactions cause an emotional relationship with our “machines” which give a rise to anthropomorphism or the tendency to project intentions, human qualities, behaviors, emotions, and character traits onto objects. If the product works well, we feel satisfied and altogether delighted because it puts what we were looking for at our fingertips at the perfectly right moment.

However, the relationships with ‘things’ can also cause a potential for negative emotions to kick in when ‘the thing’ is not doing what we want it to do. In such cases, we feel frustrated and not in control. Annoyance and irritation may arise with the possibility of escalation into anger if the aggravation persists. Therefore, good designs should be accompanied with excellent guides and help features to reduce the buid-up of negative feelings.

Guidelines for an emotional approach to designs

User-experience strategies need to include designing for emotion (Philips). They can use the power of user research and product testing to effectively set up and gauge the emotional impact of their designs. User-testing, deep research and subsequent touch-point mapping that identifies pain points, can afford designers with opportunities to identify the frustrations users may encounter while using the product. Designers should  strive to eliminate these frustrations, but they should also find opportunities to bring customers pleasure by changing critical moments into positive emotional experiences.

Three levels of design: Visceral > Behavioral > Reflective

Designs needs to work extremely well on three levels, namely, visceral, behavioral and reflective (See Don Norman’s seminal book on “Emotional Design.”).

Visceral level

First impressions are most important; therefore, the design can be regarded as effective when the potential user’s first response is that they want the product. This immediate, deep-level, positive, and instinctual gut reaction to a product’s design can create a competitive advantage. Visceral design also affects the perception of a product’s credibility, trustworthiness, quality, appeal, and even perceived ease of use. My first impression was that the Apple watch is fun, exciting, tough, speedy, uncompromising, but also intimidating.

Behavioral level
First and foremost products must work well for people, thereby contributing to its users’ satisfaction. Behavioral design focus on how the product or system, as evaluated by the potential users, meet their requirements and needs. It refers to pleasure associated with effectiveness. If users perceive it as something they can master and which makes them feel smart; they will buy it. Therefore, it has to feel good, look good and perform well. If it doesn’t work as advertised, it gives rise to an immediately negative emotion. Up to date, the only problem I have with my watch is that the heart rate monitor was troublesome (See figure).
After Googling the problem, I knew that I had to fit it tighter to my arm during exercises. Behavioral design also impacts the lifetime of apps on my iPhone and subsequently my Apple watch.
According to Philps, behavioral design is most important when apps are designed since 77 percent of users never use an app again 72 hours after installing it. As a result of good behavioral design, some apps are used on a regular basis and we can’t imagine being without them (Images from Philips)

Reflective design
 Buying and using products creates a sense of status in society, it’s about socioeconomic status. It’s about self-image, personal satisfaction, memories, reflecting back on the experience; therefore, beauty is a desirable feature of the products we buy (Philips). I want to know that it is beautiful, a pleasure to use, and can make my life easier, but I also want to know that I look good when I use it, drive it, and wear it. In this regard, I believe my Apple Watch speaks of good reflective design.

 

I can “bond” with this product, the design contributes to the perception of improved performance and quality (attractive things work better) and the perception of pleasure. I do not have to dig into my handbag when my phone rings, I can answer a call by using my watch. Furthermore, this accessory ensure that I exercise on a daily basis. The ability to change the face to suit my emotions distinct this product from a functional design.

Apple strive to form an emotional bond between the brand and the consumers by designing products that interact with one another. Brands spend millions every year to renew that connection; therefore, designers need to strive for the same emotional connection if their products are to be meaningful and successful. Designers should try to give products a “personality”; something that resembles the real world and brings pleasure and fun to the interaction to persuade them to buy and use the product.

Digital designs are a moment-by-moment effect “in the flow”, but they also operate on these three levels in the brain, namely, visceral, behavioral and reflective (Philips). It is important to note that there is a delay between these levels: first it’s visceral, second it’s behavioral and lastly reflective.

The World is in Motion

More and more designers use animated micro-interactions and screen transformations to make them seem “alive.” The world around us is in motion, flowing and fluid;and these designs mimic the real-world to allow users to form a more human-like relationship with digital products via anthropomorphism. These animated designs speak to our emotions as Philips illustrated with the following examples:

Example 1: Jewelry store e-commerce concept by Tubik (Dribbble)

Example 2: Bluetooth pairing sequence by InFullMobile (Dribbble)

Example 3: E-commerce store concept by Remco Bakker (Dribbble).

Final Words

Currently the focus is on functional beauty and emotional dimension of products (Philips). It’s no longer enough to design a functional and useful products or interfaces. Almost anyone can create functional and feature-rich everyday consumer products. To stand out in this crowd, designers need to have a deep understanding of the customer’s motivations and behavior to enable them to translate these  into effective emotional design that is elegant, beautiful and truly unique. Only then they will be able to design products and interfaces that create competitive advantage and promote growth.